The authors examined maternal and neonatal cord blood levels of lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury after supplementation with vitamin D during pregnancy. The findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation from the second trimester of pregnancy did not influence maternal cadmium, mercury, or manganese levels at delivery. Vitamin D was associated with nonsignificant increases in maternal lead and with significant increases in cord blood lead and cadmium. These associations were not dose dependent. Given that there are no safe levels of metals in infants, the observed increases in cord blood lead and cadmium require further exploration.


  1. Roth DE, Gernand AD, Morris SK, Pezzack B, Islam MM, Dimitris MC, Shanta SS, Zlotkin SH, Willan AR, Ahmed T, Shah PS, Murphy KE, Weksberg R, Choufani S, Shah R, Al Mahmud A. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to promote infant growth in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDIG trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2015 Jul 14;16:300. doi: 10.1186/s13063-015-0825-8.

  2. Roth DE, Al Mahmud A, Raqib R, Akhtar E, Perumal N, Pezzack B, Baqui AH. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of high-dose prenatal third-trimester vitamin D3 supplementation in Bangladesh: the AViDD trial. Nutr J. 2013 Apr 12;12:47. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-47.

  3. Morris SK, Pell LG, Rahman MZ, Dimitris MC, Mahmud A, Islam MM, Ahmed T, Pullenayegum E, Kashem T, Shanta SS, Gubbay J, Papp E, Science M, Zlotkin S, Roth DE. Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to prevent acute respiratory infections in infancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDARI trial): protocol for a prospective cohort study nested within a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 Oct 13;16(1):309. doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1103-9.


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