This study sought to (1) explore indications and risk factors for Caesarean section (CS) in public hospitals in four governorates in Egypt and (2) examine health care provider factors impacting the decision to perform a CS. Findings suggestA combination of both medical and non-medical factors drives the increase in CS rates. Our analysis however suggests that a substantial number of CS deliveries took place in the absence of strong medical justification. Health care provider factors seem to be powerful factors influencing CS rates in the study hospitals.


  1. Betrán AP, Ye J, Moller A-B, Zhang J, Gülmezoglu AM, Torloni MR. The increasing trend in caesarean section rates: global, regional and National Estimates: 1990-2014. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148343.

  2. Betran AP, Torloni MR, Zhang JJ, Gülmezoglu AM, Section WHOWGoC. WHO statement on caesarean section rates. BJOG. 2016;123(5):667–70.

  3. Ye J, Zhang J, Mikolajczyk R, Torloni MR, Gulmezoglu AM, Betran AP. Association between rates of caesarean section and maternal and neonatal mortality in the 21st century: a worldwide population-based ecological study with longitudinal data. BJOG. 2016;123(5):745–53.


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