In this epidemiological case-control study, the authors collected data from Demographic and Health Surveys from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh for the period 1998–2016 for women who reported at least one pregnancy loss and one or more livebirths. The authors assessed ambient exposure during gestation with satellite-based PM2·5 measurements for the period. The findings add to epidemiological evidence of the association between pregnancy loss and PM2·5. Suboptimal air quality contributes to a considerable fraction of total pregnancy loss in south Asia. Controlling PM2·5 pollution will promote maternal health in south Asia.


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  2. de Bernis L Kinney MV Stones W et al. Stillbirths: ending preventable deaths by 2030. Lancet. 2016; 387: 703-716

  3. Lawn JE Blencowe H Waiswa P et al. Stillbirths: rates, risk factors, and acceleration towards 2030. Lancet. 2016; 387: 587-603


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